"Feeling really good!" Mr Trump tweeted just before a scheduled briefing from his doctors. He said he would be discharged at 18:30 (22:30 GMT).
But questions remain over the seriousness of Mr Trump's illness after a weekend of conflicting statements.
The true scale of the outbreak at the White House remains unclear.
"Don't be afraid of Covid," he tweeted. "Don't let it dominate your life. We have developed, under the Trump Administration, some really great drugs & knowledge. I feel better than I did 20 years ago!!"
Shortly before leaving hospital he tweeted: "Will be back on the Campaign Trail soon!!! The Fake News only shows the Fake Polls."
More than 7.4 million cases of Covid-19 have been recorded in the US and the virus has killed nearly 210,000 Americans, according to Johns Hopkins University.
Speaking to reporters on Monday, the president's doctors avoided specifics of his care, but said he was doing well and would receive another dose of remdesivir before being discharged.
The president's discharge comes as more new cases have been reported among White House staff.
At least 12 people close to Mr Trump have now tested positive, as have several junior staff members.
Many of the people who have tested positive around President Trump attended a meeting at the White House on 26 September that is being scrutinised as a possible "super-spreader event".
The White House has not revealed how many staff members have tested positive since Mr Trump's own diagnosis.
The latest coronavirus case to emerge from that event, at which the president unveiled his nominee for the US Supreme Court, is a Christian minister.
Before attending the White House Rose Garden gathering, Pastor Greg Laurie was also with US Vice-President Mike Pence at a prayer march in central Washington DC.
The Californian minister is said to be experiencing "mild symptoms" of Covid-19, reports the BBC's US partner CBS News.